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Constitutional, Statutory, & Rule Provisions,
Caselaw, Law Review articles, etc.
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New York State Constitution  & here

New York State Statutes (Consolidated Law)

Senate Rules    Assembly Rules

* * *

Constitutional provisions pertaining to the Budget
Article VII "State Finances"

See: Article VII, §§1-7; Article IV,§7

Statutory Provision Pertaining to Division of the Budget:
Executive Law, Article 8

§180 -- Duties; Budget Director


Constitutional and statutory provisions pertaining to the timeliness
of the Governor's budget bills & legislation
Constitution, Article VII,§§2, 3; State Finance Law §22(16)

Constitutional, rule, and statutory provisions pertaining to openness
Article III, §10; Senate Rules XI, §1; V, §5d, §7; VI, §1; VIII, §3, §4, §5, §7;  IX, §6; XV;  
Assembly Rules II, §1; III, §2; IV, §2, §3; V, §2, §5; VI; Public Officers Law, Articles VI, VII

Senate & Assembly rules mandating memos, fiscal notes, impact statements
Senate Rule VII, §1; Senate Rule VIII, §7; Assembly Rule III, §1f, §2a;
Permanent Joint Senate/Assembly Rule I

Statutes pertaining to reappropriations -- & relevant constitutional provisions
State Finance Law §25, §43; Article III, §16

Statutory and rule provisions pertaining to legislative budget schedule
Legislative Law §53, §54-a; Senate-Assembly Joint Rule III; Assembly Rule I, §8

Statutory and rule provisions pertaining to budget conference committees
Legislative Law §54-a; Senate-Assembly Joint Rules III, II
Chapter 1 of the Laws of 2007

A-2755   S-1322

Statutes pertaining to legislative budget hearings
Legislative Law §31, §32-a

Senate & Assembly rules pertaining to amendments
Senate Rule VII, §4b; IX, §4; Assembly Rule III, §1f; Assembly Rule III, §6

Statutes mandating legislative reports on the budget
Legislative Law §54; State Finance Law §22-b

Senate & Assembly rules pertaining to oversight & annual reports
Senate Rule VIII, §4(c), §4(d); Assembly Rule IV, §1(d), §1(e), §4(b), §9

Constitutional provisions pertaining to messages of necessity
Article III, §14, Articles VII, §§4-5

State Finance Law §22

Yellow Book -- 2022  pp. 194-213

Yellow Book -- 2021  pp. 198-216

Yellow Book -- 2020 pp. 192-214

Yellow Book -- 2017 pp. 190-211


See, also: "Albany's Dysfunction Denies Due Process"
Professor Eric Lane, Pace Law Review (2010)

click here for:  Rules Reform Resource Page
posting Brennan Center Reports --2004, 2006, 2008


click here for:
Silver v. Pataki
Pataki v. Assembly & Senate


Schulz v. State of New York
Court of Appeals decision (1994)

Schulz v. Silver
Appellate Division, 3rd Dept decision (1995)

New York State Bankers Association v. Wetzler
Court of Appeals decision (1993)

Winner v. Cuomo
Appellate Division, 3rd Dept decision (1992)

Anderson v. Regan
Court of Appeals decision (1981)

Saxton v. Carey
Court of Appeals decision (1978)
Appellate Division, 3rd Dept decision (1978)

Levitt v. Rockefeller
Supreme Court decision (1972)

Hidley v. Rockefeller
Court of Appeals decision(1971)
Appellate Division, 3rd Dept decision (1971)

Tremaine 2
Court of Appeals decision (1939)
Appellate Division, 3rd Dept decision (1939)

Tremaine I 
Court of Appeals decision (1929)
Appellate Division 3rd Dept decision (1929)



As to the unconstitutionality of three-men-in-a-room
budget deal-making

King v. Cuomo -- Court of Appeals decision (1993)

Seymour v. Cuomo -- Appellate Division 3rd Dept decision (1992)

See, also "The Anti-Corruption Principle",
Professor Zephyr Teachout, Cornell Law Review (2009)

Law Review articles of Note

"Legislative Oversight of an Executive Budget Process:
Impoundments in New York
5 Pace L. Rev. 211 (1985) -- Eric Lane

"Reform in New York: The Budget, the Legislature,
and the Governance Process
67 Albany Law Review 1021 (2004) -- Gerald Benjamin


other relevant cases:

Michael Cohen v. New York State
Court of Appeals decision (1999)
NY Supreme Court decision (1999)

Bellacosa/Ct of Appeals: 

The Governor proposes a budget, recommending appropriations (NY Const, art VII, §3), and the Legislature may strike out or reduce items, as well as propose its own additions (NY Const, art VII, §4). The Governor's proposals, if enacted by the Legislature (both Houses acting in harmony), shall become law without further Executive action; appropriations for the Legislature and Judiciary and any proposed additional appropriations, however, are subject to the Governor's further action (NY Const, art VII, §4).


Chapter 635 of the Laws of 1998 adds procedural oil to this delicately calibrated mechanism. The Legislature, as a Branch of government, must have "finally acted on" the appropriations submitted by the Governor before individuallegislators may be paid. The inducement does not require that the Legislature pass the Governor's budget; only that it pass a budget (see, Senate Debate Transcripts, pp 6622–6629, 6625–6626, Bill Jacket, L 1998, ch 635).

Just as the plaintiffs theorize about scenarios where the Governor may "force" legislators into budgetary submission, competing hypotheses may be composed. For example, the Legislature could simply have stricken some of the Governor's proposed appropriations and offered no additions of its own. The State would then have had an instant budget over which the Governor would have had no subsequent, separate, constitutionally assigned role."

Korn v. Gulotta, 72 NY2d 363 (1988)

 "A budget is a statement of the financial position of the government, for a definite period of time, based upon an estimate of proposed expenditures and anticipated revenues... . The method by which public budgets are prepared is governed by the State Constitution and the applicable State statutes. The requirements contained in those documents are not particularly burdensome and permit the executive and legislative officials considerable freedom of action in implementing governmental operations and programs and providing for the revenues to fund them. The legal requirements they contain, however, are grounded in the general principles of fiscal responsibility and the accountability that underpins the regulation of all public conduct and they must be followed."

      dissent: "where a budget is prepared in clear violation of a statutory or constitutional mandate, it is subject to review by the courts (see, Wein v Carey, 41 N.Y.2d 498; Matter of Block v Sprague, 285 N.Y. 69)."
           Korn v. Gulotta -- 2nd Dept.

Block v. Sprague, 285 NY 69 (1941)

Wein v. State of New York, 39 N.Y.2d 136 (1976)

Wein v. Carey, 41 N.Y.2d 498 (1977)  -- "constitutionally mandated and meticulously directed process (NY Const, art VII, §§ 1-4)"

Bordeleau v. State of New York, 18 NY3d 305 (2011)


Posner v. Rockefeller, 60 Misc. 2d 597 (S.Ct/NY Co 1969)

Posner v. Rockefeller, 26 NY2d 970 (N.Y. 1970)

Posner v Rockefeller, 33 AD2d 314  (3rd Dept. 1970)

Posner v. Levitt, 37 A.D.2d 331(3rd Dept 1971)

Levitt v. Rockefeller, 69 Misc. 2d 337 (1972)


Maybee v State of New York,  4 NY3d 415 (2005)

           cigarette bill

Norwich v. Rockefeller,
70 Misc.2d 923 (1972)


VIDEO of NYS Senate Select Committee on Budget & Tax Reform's December 17, 2009 hearing

Transcript & written statements

search docs

*    *    *

Also, of note --

Dunlea v. Anderson, 66 NY2d 265 (1985)


NYPIRG v. Steingut, 40 N.Y.2d 250 (1976)


Hurd v. City of Buffalo



*   *   *   * 




Governor Cuomo's April 13, 2016 press release "Governor Cuomo Vetoes 210 Legislative Additions to the 2016-2017 Legislative Budget"     specifications of vetoes



Where's the Comptroller?


       Discovering the Hidden History of "Budget Reform"

November 2005 vote -- Pronbn


position #1

S.8414/A.11995  - 2006

S07615 -- 2004 

Senate passes budget reform legislation -- Catharine Young (Jan. 2007)

   S.1322 -- introduced at request of Governor -- January 18, 2007

S.1 -- January 5, 2005    A.2

S.2 -- January 5, 2005

S.3 -- January 5, 2005


Assembly Bills #A.11860 (Sept. 15, 2004) -- CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

Assembly Bill #A.596 -- (2005-2006)  CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

Assembly Bill #A.1232 -- (2007-2008) -- CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

Assembly Bill #A.4299 -- (2009 - 2010) -- CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

A.3 -- January 5, 2005



Senate Bill #S.4043 -- (2005-2006) -- CONCURRENT RESOLUTION   (Spano)

Senate Bill #S.3722 -- (2017-2018) -- CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

Senate Bill #S.2974 -- (2019-2020) -- CONCURRENT RESOLUTION


"Understanding and Evaluating the New York State Legislature's proposed Budget Process Constitutional Amendments"   Fiscal Policy Institute -- Frank Mauro  (July 2012)   & here 


Robert B. Ward/The Rockefeller Institute Press  (2nd edition, 2006)

Chapter 10:  State Government's Biggest Job: The Budget

"The Constitution sets no date for budget adoption; under the State Finance Law, the state’s fiscal year
begins on April 1."  (at p. 259)

"The state’s fiscal year is set in statute (not the Constitution) as April 1 through March 31." (at p. 261)

"The state Constitution does not specify when the budget must be adopted, but State Finance Law sets the fiscal year as April 1 through March 31."  (at p. 264)

Miscellaneous Historical Materials:

"Reinventing Budgeting in New York State"
NYS Legislative Commission on Government Administration
(October 1995)

April 7, 2010: "Sen. Krueger Announces Reforms To Fix NY's Broken Budget Process"

2010 John Sampson on budget

August 3, 2010: "125 Days Late, A State Budget With New Taxes", NYT (Danny Hakim)


April 11, 2011 budget process

*   *   *


click here for:  
CJA's Citizen-Taxpayer Action to End NYS' Corrupt Budget "Process"
& Unconstitutional "Three Men in a Room" Governance 


click here for:  
of the Corrupt Commission Scheme to Raise the Salaries
of Corrupt Public Officers (2011 - to date)





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